Antimicrobial Double-Layer Wound Dressing Based on Chitosan/Polyvinyl Alcohol/Copper: In vitro and in vivo Assessment

Purpose: Today, the development of wounds and their side effects has become a problematic issue in medical science research. Hydrogel-based dressings are some of the best candidates for this purpose due to their ability to keep the wound bed clean, as well as provide proper moisture, tissue compatibility and an antimicrobial effect for wound healing. On the other hand, copper and its compounds have been used experimentally for many years in studies as an antimicrobial substance. Various studies have been performed determining the antimicrobial properties of this element, during which significant effects on infection have been shown.

Methods: Chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol/copper nanofibers were successfully prepared by incorporating Cu onto a polymer electrospun using an electrospinning technique. A doublelayer nanofiber composed of poly(vinyl alcohol) and chitosan incorporated with Cu nanoparticles as a protective layer and a second layer composed of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers which was adjacent to the damaged cells was prepared. The prepared nanofiber was characterized by TGA, FT-IR, TEM, SEM-EDS, and X-ray powder diffraction. The antimicrobial efficiency of the nanofibers was demonstrated through biological tests on some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Finally, the prepared hydrogel formulations were prepared to evaluate their effect on the healing process of rat open wounds.

Results: In this study, data from SEM, TEM, EDS, and XRD confirmed the formation of uniform fibers with nanodiameters and the presence of Cu nanoparticles onto the electrospun nanofibers.
The antibacterial activity of copper was observed against all of the selected bacteria, but the Grampositive bacteria were more sensitive compared to Gram-negative bacteria.

Conclusion: According to the obtained results, the hydrogel wound dressing prepared in this research can be effective in caring for open wounds in the early stages of wound healing and preventing the occurrence of prolonged open wounds.